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Surround Sound and Blu-ray disc

Blu-ray Players Sony BDP-S560

Blu-ray is a high-capacity optical disc format used to store and play high-definition video and audio. A Blu-ray disc is read by a thinner, blue-violet laser rather than the red laser used with conventional DVDs. This means that a Blu-ray disc can store over five times the amount of data that a standard DVD can.

Although Blu-ray and HD DVD are both high-definition media formats that rely on blue-laser technology, there are some important differences between them. A standard HD DVD can hold 15 GB per side (30 GB on a dual-layer disc), whereas Blu-ray can hold 25 GB per side (50 GB on a dual-layer disc).

While the two formats are not compatible with each other, they both offer superior audio/video quality.

Standard DVD has a maximum resolution of 480p (or 480 lines). In contrast, Blu-ray has the capacity to store all of the data needed for high-definition video, so it is able to reproduce the high-definition images at a resolution of 1080p.

In addition, the extra disc space means there's room for significantly more content and special features.

The Blu-ray players are backward compatible and should play conventional DVD discs.

About Surround Sound

Surround Sound:
Surround sound is the attempt to store and reproduce, as close as possible in three dimensions, the actual sounds of a real life event had you been there in person right in the middle of the action. From a concert hall performance to a speeding car, surround sound makes you feel as if you are hearing and experiencing a real event. The sound "surrounds' you from all sides. This is accomplished by using multiple loudspeakers placed around the listener, front, back and sides.

Stereo sound (2 channels, left and right) was the first attempt at "surround sound" in that it separated the sounds into two channels and gave the listener more than one dimension of sound. With the correct speaker placement the listener heard a much more realistic representation of the original sound event. Over the years, surround sound has gone from 2 to 8 channels of sound and more. Currently the technology is mostly 6 channel with some 7 and 8 channel sound sources.

There are both analog and digital surround sound encoding methods. Surround sound is a key component in home theater audio systems. Currently there are 6 channel (5.1), 7 channel (6.1) and 8 channel (7.1) components with the 5.1 systems being the most common. The Dolby Digital 5.1 standard has been chosen for the High Definition TV audio format for broadcast television and can be found in many AV receivers currently. Some AV Receivers have 6.1 or 7.1 capability.

Surround Sound Speaker Designations  

FL = Front Left  1
FR = Front Right 2
C = Center 3
SL = Surround Left 4
SR = Surround Right 5
SW = Subwoofer .1
SBL = Surround Back Left 6
SBR = Surround Back Right 7

Multiple loudspeakers surround the listener

Surround Sound on DVD

DVD has a limited amount of space on the disc to store video and audio. Because video information uses most of the space on a disc, there is only room for so much audio, and for this reason the audio is "compressed" or "encoded" and then "decompressed" or "decoded" on playback. The method of compression or encoding is accomplished in various ways where one way may be more efficient than another. The proof of which way is best is up to the listener on playback.

Dolby Labs is one company which has achieved a level of success over the years with sound techniques. Dolby has developed several ways to manipulate sound data and store it on DVD audio tracks. DTS is another company in this arena. The audio encoding standards developed by these companies have been incorporated into DVD movies and Audio/Video Receivers so consumers can enjoy surround sound from DVD.

The following chart explains the different surround sound formats

Surround Sound Format Discrete/
Digital/ Analog Speakers Description
Dolby Prologic II Matrixed Analog 5.1 Primary movie use is for non-Dolby Digital movies, non-digital broadcast TV, games, and music.
DTS NEO:6 Matrixed Analog 5.1 Excellent music format. Can also be used for movies.
Dolby Digital Discrete Digital 5.1 Primary movie surround sound audio format for DVD and HDTV broadcast.
DTS Discrete Digital 5.1 Alternate DVD-based movie format.
Dolby Digital EX Discrete
(rear matrixed)
Digital 6.1
Updated movie format on some DVDs.
DTS-ES Discrete Digital 6.1
Updated movie format on some DVDs.
Dolby Digital Plus Discrete Digital up to 13.1 HD-DVD and Blu-ray movies.
Dolby TrueHD Discrete Digital up to 13.1 HD-DVD and Blu-ray movies.
DTS-HD Discrete
down sampling
Digital up to 13.1 HD-DVD and Blu-ray movies.

Dolby Digital and DTS are six-channel (5.1) digital surround sound systems and are the standard soundtracks in major motion pictures on standard DVD, music, and digital television audio (HDTV). They both use the 5.1 speaker format. The format consists of three speakers across the front and two speakers in the rear. The .1 is a sixth channel called Low-Frequency-Effects and is sent to a subwoofer.

A DVD-Video disc can have up to 8 audio tracks or streams of audio data. Each track can be in different formats:

* Dolby Digital (AC-3): 1 to 5.1 channels
* MPEG-2 audio: 1 to 5.1 or 7.1 channels
* PCM (Pulse Code Modulation): 1 to 8 channels.

Additional optional formats are provided also:
DTS 5.1 for example. These require external decoders and are not supported by all players.

The ".1" refers to a low-frequency effects (LFE) channel that connects to a subwoofer. This channel carries an emphasized bass audio signal.

Linear PCM is uncompressed (lossless) digital audio, the same format used on Audio CDs and most studio masters. It can be sampled at 48 or 96 kHz with 16, 20, or 24 bits/sample. Audio CD is limited to 44.1 kHz at 16 bits. There can be from 1 to 8 channels. The maximum bit rate is 6.144 Mbps, which limits sample rates and bit sizes when there are 5 or more channels.

The 96 dB dynamic range of 16 bits or even the 120 dB range of 20 bits combined with a frequency response of up to 22,000 Hz from 48 kHz sampling is adequate for high-fidelity sound reproduction.

Lossy audio compression: Lossy is an audio compression method where pieces of data are intentionally discarded to reduce the size of the data stream. Depending on the amount of compression, a lossy-compressed stream can be close enough to the original in accuracy and quality that the difference is insignificant. If the compression is higher, the lossy-compressed stream can sound quite different from the original.

Lossless audio compression: Lossless is a compression method where no pieces of data are discarded and therefore can reproduce bit-for-bit the originally recorded audio.

Matrixed audio decoding: Matrixed channel audio is audio that, when properly decoded, simulates more audio channels than actually exist in the audio files or streams. For example, decoding two-channel stereo audio using Dolby Prologic II can deliver five matrixed channels over your receiver. Generally matrixed audio is analog, although it can be digital as is the case of the rear center channels of Dolby Digital EX 7.1.

Discrete audio decoding: Discrete channel audio is audio that is encoded, transmitted, stored and played back as separate channels. Generally, multi-channel discrete audio is encoded digitally. An example of this is Dolby Digital 5.1. Discrete audio decoding is preferred over matrixed audio decoding.

Here are the various surround sound technologies of recent times:

Dolby Prologic (Matrixed Analog 4.1 Surround):
Dolby Prologic is an analog matrixed surround sound standard created by Dolby Laboratories in the 1980s. It is 4.1 surround with Front-left, Front-center, Front-right, Surround-center, and subwoofer. Dolby Prologic was succeeded by Dolby Prologic II in 2000.

Dolby Prologic II (Matrixed Analog 5.1 Surround): Dolby Prologic II is an analog matrixed surround sound standard created by Dolby Laboratories in 2000. It is 5.1 surround with Front-left, Front-center, Front-right, Surround-left, Surround-right, and subwoofer channels. Prologic II can process both Dolby Prologic and stereo sound sources and simulate 5.1 surround pretty well. While the movie industry has clearly standardized on discrete digital encoding standards such as Dolby Digital and DTS, the music and video game industries still rely on Dolby Prologic II as a standard for surround. Dolby Prologic II has a movie mode, music mode, matrix mode and game mode. The music mode adds center and surround channels, but does not change the nature of the left and right channels. The movie mode is designed to provide a 5.1 experience for movies that are not digitally encoded. The game mode supports decoding for video games.

DTS NEO:6 (Matrixed Analog 5.1 Surround): Like Dolby Prologic II, DTS NEO:6 is an analog matrixed surround standard that can up-mix stereo content into a 5.1 or 6.1 surround format.

Dolby Digital (Discrete Digital 5.1 Surround): Dolby Digital is a family of digital surround encoding technologies from Dolby Laboratories. It is also known as AC-3 (Adaptive Transform Coder 3). It's capable of various channel configurations, however, it is most widely implemented as 5.1 surround. It includes Front-left, Front-center, Front-right, Surround-left, Surround-right, and subwoofer channels. Dolby Digital is a lossy encoding technology limited to 640 kbits per second, however, the DVD disc format limit it to 448 kbits per second. Since Dolby Digital treats each channel discretely and is digitally encoded, Dolby Digital requires a digital decoder to provide the 5.1 audio standard. Most home theater receivers can decode Dolby Digital, however, to get the signal from a source such as a DVD player to the receiver you must use a digital audio connection such as optical or coax.

DTS (Discrete Digital 5.1 Surround): DTS (Digital Theater Systems) is a competing standard to Dolby Digital. It's a discrete digital surround standard that offers multiple channel surround including Front-left, Front-center, Front-right, Surround-left, Surround-right, and subwoofer channels. Similar to Dolby Digital, it differs in one primary way. It offers lossy encoding up to 1536 kbits bandwidth on DVDs compared with Dolby Digital's 448 kbits. Depending on your sound system, you may notice a broader dynamic range and less hiss. Like Dolby Digital, DTS requires that your home theater receiver support decoding DTS and also requires digital audio connections (optical or coax).

Dolby Digital EX (Discrete Digital 6.1 and 7.1 Surround): Dolby Digital EX is an update to Dolby Digital which adds a matrixed Rear-center channel to a 5.1 setup. This can be accomplished through one (6.1) or two speakers (7.1). In 7.1, however, the two rear speakers operate as a mono channel.

DTS-ES (Discrete Digital 6.1 and 7.1 Surround): DTS-ES is Digital Theater Systems' competitive technology to Dolby Digital EX. Like Dolby Digital EX, DTS-ES builds on DTS and adds a center rear channel using one or two speakers. It differs from Dolby Digital EX in that the 6th Rear-center channel can be stored discretely in the source audio, as opposed to matrixed as it is in Dolby Digital EX.

Dolby Digital Plus (Discrete Digital 13.1 Surround): Dolby Digital Plus, also known as E-AC-3, is a new standard by Dolby Laboratories that provides beyond 8 channels. Current HD-DVD and Blu-ray implementations, however, limit it to 8 channels. Dolby Digital Plus increases the lossy encoding up to 6 Mbps. It is the required surround sound standard for HD-DVD and Blu-ray high def discs. It's also the future standard for ATSC HDTV broadcasts. Current digital audio connection standards (optical and coax) do not have the bandwidth to support Dolby Digital Plus. HDMI version 1.3 is the only currently supported connection methods for Dolby Digital Plus.

Dolby TrueHD (Discrete Digital 13.1 Surround): TrueHD is a next-generation lossless surround encoding standard. Supporting up to 24-bit/96 kHZ audio at up to 18 Mbits, it's a mandatory standard on HD-DVD and is optional on Blu-ray disc. It uses a HDMI 1.3 connection standard.

DTS-HD (Discrete Digital Surround, virtually unlimited channels): DTS-HD is Digital Theater Systems' answer to Dolby TrueHD. The specification allows for unlimited channels that can be down-mixed to the number of channels supported on the home system. The bit-rate is also flexible in that it can be as low as lossy DTS, or all the way up to lossless quality. DTS-HD is an optional standard on HD-DVD and Blu-ray high def discs.

THX: THX is a certification and standard created by Lucasfilm both for video content and for audio and video equipment. There are numerous THX certifications including: THX Ultra and THX Ultra2 (the THX standards for dedicated home-theater installations in a 3,000 cubic foot room); and THX Select and THX Select2 (the THX standards for non-dedicated and smaller 2,000 cubic foot home theaters). There has been much debate about the validity of THX certification and whether it provides measurable value in component and home theater design or do licensing fees just elevate pricing.

  • Audio / Video Receivers - User Guide

lossy Dolby Digital Mandatory @ 640 Kbit/s Mandatory @ 504 Kbit/s Mandatory @ 448 Kbit/s
DTS Mandatory @ 1.5 Mbit/s Mandatory @ 1.5 Mbit/s Optional @ 756 Kbit/s
Dolby Digital Plus Optional @ 1.7 Mbit/s (note 4) Mandatory @ 3.0 Mbit/s N/A
DTS-HD High Resolution Optional @ 6.0 Mbit/s Optional @ 3.0 Mbit/s N/A
lossless Linear PCM Mandatory Mandatory Mandatory
Dolby TrueHD Optional Mandatory (note 2) N/A
DTS-HD Master Audio Optional Optional N/A

note 2: All HD DVD players are required to be able to decode Dolby TrueHD to two channels, however all current players handle 5.1 decoding.
note 4: On Blu-ray Disc, a Dolby Digital Plus audio is stored as two separate components: the 'core' Dolby Digital bitstream at 640 Kbit/s (which is independently playable), and the 'extension' bitstream at 1 MBit/s.

How do I connect my player?

Blu-ray Players

The 1st generation players may not have the latest capabilities but some can be upgraded via a firmware update available by internet download. Many of the 2nd generation players include expanded capabilities such as having 7.1 analog outputs, HDMI 1.3 and decoding for the newest audio codecs.

If you have a Blu-ray disc with a Dolby Digital 5.1 audio source and you have a A/V Receiver with Dolby Digital 5.1 decoding and you have 5 loudspeakers plus a subwoofer connected to your A/V Receiver, you can use an optical or coaxial digital audio cable to connect your Blu-ray Player to your A/V Receiver.

However, if you have a set of 5.1 channel direct analog inputs on your receiver, then this is an even better option, as the 5.1 channel analog outputs of the Blu-ray disc player already contain a decoded surround sound signal.

Also, if you have a higher-end Audio/Video receiver that has direct HDMI inputs (that are not just simply pass through connections), your AV receiver would be able to accept the ucompressed digital audio signal from the Blu-ray Disc player, which is even better than using the 5.1 channel analog signal or the digital audio signal input options. Consult your AV Receiver user manual to see if any HDMI inputs are pass-through only, or if the receiver can decode the audio signal properly.

Now, if you have the newer high-res Dolby TrueHD audio source, then you cannot use your optical or digital coaxial cable connection from player to AV Receiver. Why? Because these simply do not have the bandwidth required to carry the newer datastream. So what are your options?

1) Use the multiple RCA analog audio cables from player to AV Receiver if the player can decode the audio.
2) Use a HDMI 1.3 hookup if you have a HDMI 1.3 capable AV Receiver and player.

Hookup Diagram Blu-ray

BLU-RAY Disc Surround Sound Audio

Blu-ray disc movies can contain new surround sound technologies to complement the newer High Definition video. The newer Audio formats are as follows:

Dolby TrueHD


* 100 percent lossless coding technology.
* Up to 18 Mbps bit rate.
* Supports up to eight full-range channels of 24-bit/96 kHz audio.*
* Supported by High-Definition Multi-Media Interface, the new single-cable digital connection for audio and video.
* Supports extensive metadata including dialog normalization and dynamic range control.

*Dolby TrueHD can support more than eight audio channels. HD DVD and Blu-ray Disc standards currently limit their maximum number of audio channels to eight.


* Delivers studio-master-quality sound that unlocks the true high-definition entertainment experience on next-generation discs.
* Offers more discrete channels than ever before for impeccable surround sound.
* Compatible with the A/V receivers and home-theaters-in-a-box (HTIBs) of today and tomorrow.
* Dialog normalization maintains the same volume level when you change to other Dolby Digital and Dolby TrueHD programming.
* Dynamic range control (Night mode) enables you to customize audio playback to reduce peak volume levels (no loud surprises) while experiencing all the details in the soundtrack, enabling late-night viewing of high-energy surround sound without disturbing others.
* Selected as the mandatory format for HD DVD and as an optional format for Blu-ray Disc.

Dolby Digital Plus


* Mulitchannel sound with discrete channel output.
* Channel and program extensions can carry multichannel audio programs of up to 7.1 channels* and support multiple programs in a single encoded bitstream.
* Outputs a Dolby Digital bitstream for playback on existing Dolby Digital systems.
* Supports data rates as high as 6 Mbps.
* Bit rate performance of at least 3 Mbps on HD DVD and up to 1.7 Mbps on Blu-ray Disc.
* Accurately reproduces what the director and producer intended.
* Interactive mixing and streaming capability in advanced systems.
* Supported by HDMI, the new single-cable digital connection for high-definition audio and video.


* Can deliver 7.1 channels and beyond* of enhanced-quality audio at up to 6 Mbps.
* Allows multiple languages to be carried in a single bitstream.
* Offers audio professionals new creative power and freedom.
* Compatible with the millions of home entertainment systems equipped with Dolby Digital.
* No latency or loss of quality in the conversion process.
* Maintains high quality at more efficient broadcast bit rates (<320 kbps for 5.1-channel audio).
* Selected by the Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) as the standard for future broadcast applications; named as an option by the Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) Project for satellite and cable TV.
* Selected as the mandatory audio format for HD DVD and as an optional audio format for the Blu-ray Disc.

*Dolby Digital Plus can support more than eight audio channels. HD DVD and Blu-ray Disc standards currently limit their maximum number of audio channels to eight.

DTS-HD Master Audio

*7.1 Discrete Channels
*Bit for Bit Identical to the Original Master
*Optional for Both Blu-Ray Disc and HD-DVD

Dolby Digital Plus is basically a step-up from SACD and DVD-Audio, but offering up to 7.1 Discrete channels (and the capability to do more, although BD and HD-DVD will only currently support a maximum of 7.1 discrete channels).

These new soundtracks are certainly better than their DVD counterparts as Dolby 5.1 is limited to 640kbps and DTS is limited to 1509 kbps on DVD. Twice the resolution of DVD at the minimum for audio, with dramatically better clarity.

HDMI 1.3 allows your next-generation disc player to pass the Dolby TrueHD, Plus or DTS HD Master Audio directly to your receiver or preamp, and be decoded and processed using your preamp or receiver's Digital / Analog Converters. This assumes of course that your hardware is capable of decoding the signals.

What surround standard you'll use in a home theater environment to listen to music will depend on whether you are listening to music from CDs and digital music (MP3s, wav, AAC, etc.), or from DVD-Audio. Since CDs and digital music generally include only stereo 2-channel audio, you should choose non-discrete surround encoding standards such as Dolby Prologic II or DTS NEO:6. For DVD-Audio, you'll generally want to use one of the discrete digital encoding standards such as Dolby Digital 5.1 or DTS.

DVD Movies
For standard DVDs, a huge majority of the discs support Dolby Digital 5.1 (AC-3). Many DVDs support DTS and other Dolby Digital variants (Dolby Digital EX and DTS-ES). Which audio option you choose when playing a DVD movie depends on your home theater system. You should choose the standard that sounds the best and optimizes your amplifier/speaker setup.

For example, if you are setup for 7.1 audio, then choose DTS-ES or Dolby Digital EX. If in doubt, Dolby Digital 5.1 is a safe choice. Remember, to use a digital standard you must have the digital optical or coax connections to your compatible receiver with proper decoding capability.

HDTV Broadcast and Cable
For broadcast HDTV, both Dolby Digital 5.1 and Dolby Prologic II are generally supported. However, which format you actually receive in the broadcast signal is determined by your local broadcaster and/or cable company.

With certain channels and networks, even when programming says it's in Dolby Digital 5.1 it may not reach your system in digital 5.1. When that happens, setting your audio receiver/amplifier to Dolby Prologic II will likely provide the best results. Many receivers will revert to this setting if a Dolby Digital signal is not available. Keep in mind that just like DVDs, in order to use a digital standard you must have the digital optical or coax connections to your receiver from your cable or satellite set-top box.

High Def DVD Formats and the Future HDTV
For HD-DVD, Blu-ray and future ATSC HDTV, the standard are Dolby Digital Plus, Dolby TrueHD and DTS-HD. These standards will drive future audio systems. All of these devices also support today's Dolby Digital 5.1 standard.

In order to enjoy the benefits of any of these formats you must have:

  1. A compatible source device
    Your source devices such as DVD player, game console, set-top box, etc., must be compatible with, or at least allow pass-through of the encoded digital audio standard.

  2. The right connections
    In order to pass digital standards such as Dolby Digital from your source, you must have the right connections between the device and your receiver - either digital coax or optical.

    For the new high bandwidth standards, such as Dolby TrueHD, you must have a compatible digital audio connection such as HDMI 1.3 or IEEE-1394 (Firewire).

  3. A compatible receiver or amplifier
    In order to decode the content from the source device, you must have an audio receiver or audio amplifier that is able to decode the audio standard you choose.

    For example, if you are watching a DVD with DTS audio content offered as an option, and your receiver supports Dolby Digital but doesn't support and decode DTS - don't choose DTS in the DVD menu system.

  4. The right speaker setup
    Lastly, in order to get the benefit of 5.1, 6.1, 7.1 or more, you must have the right speaker setup. You should have at least 5 speakers (Front-left, Front-center, Front-right, Surround-left, and Surround-right) and a subwoofer connected to your audio receiver or amplifier.


HDMI Versions

• HDMI 1.0 = High Def video + L/R audio.
• HDMI 1.1 = HDMI 1.0 + DVD-Audio.
• HDMI 1.2 = HDMI 1.1 + SACD.
• HDMI 1.3 = HDMI 1.2 + enhanced HD Video + Dolby TrueHD and DTS-HD Audio.

HDMI cable

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PC stereo hookup

Windows Sound Recorder

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